Tzaneen is ituated in a high rainfall fertile region with tropical and subtropical agriculture taking place in a 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi) region. It is Limpopo's second largest town after Polokwane.
About 475,000 people reside within a 30 km (19 mi) radius, with the town itself holding a population of around 30,000. Tzaneen is today a proud home of both the Tsonga people and Northern Sotho tribes. Approximately 225,000 Balobedu people of Modjadji, BaNareng, Batlou, Bathlabine and BaKgaga call Tzaneen their home. Equally so, approximately 220,000 Tsonga people of Shiluvane-Nkuna clan under Hosi Muhlaba-Shiluvane (132,000 people/subjects) and Valoyi clan under Hosi Nwamitwa-Valoyi (91,000 people/subjects) makes the same claim that Tzaneen is also their native land, thereby making the Tsonga-Sotho ratio at Tzaneen a 50:50 outcome. Both the Tsonga and Northern sotho communities go beyond Tzaneen and are also found in large numbers in nearby towns of Bushbuckridge and Hazyview respectively, which are 191 km (119 mi) south-east of Tzaneen and they also live peacefully with one another in this part of the lowveld. The White population is around 25,000, which consists mainly the Afrikaner people and a very small minority of English, Portuguese, Scottish, Irish, Jewish and German. The Afrikaner people constitute more than 90% of the white population in Tzaneen. The distance from Tzaneen to Johannesburg is approximately 420 km (260 mi).